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Passage of the train wheels induces ground-borne vibrations at the railwheel interface, where the main contribution is due to the axle loads moving on irregular track and wheel interface. These vibrations can cause problems such as the compaction and settlement of the foundation soil of the structures nearby, liquefaction of the soil or discomfort of people, just to name a few. Therefore predicting and controlling such phenomena is critically important for the design and operation of the railways. These vibrations are modeled using many di erent methods existing in the literature. In this paper we analyze the e ects of groundwater depth and ground inclination angle on those vibrations using a random vibration model, where the elastic rail-soil system is modeled as a Winkler foundation. We examine the e ects of changing fully saturated groundwater levels and changing ground inclination angles on such vibrations. We relate the groundwater depth and ground inclination angle parameters with the sti ness of the Winkler model using Terzaghi's, Vesic's and Bowles's bearing capacity formulas. The common 5-axle and the 6-axle tram load con gurations and di erent train speeds of 30 km/hr, 40 km/hr, 50 km/hr are used in our implemented model. It is shown that the decrease in groundwater depth and/or higher ground inclination angle can signi cantly change the peak and rms vibration velocity and acceleration levels, both for the 5-axle and 6-axle con gurations and all three di erent train speeds. We present exponential and exponential-trigonometric t curves to the results of the implemented random vibration model, which can be used to model the approximate changes in the ground-borne vibration velocity and acceleration levels due to di erent groundwater depth and diferent ground inclination angles. We also discuss our results and their applicability.


Train induced vibrations, Winkler foundation, Random vibrations, Groundwater table, Ground inclination angle.